Using the Arksey and O’Malley scoping review framework, we systematically searched the Cochrane Library, CINAHL, EMBASE, MEDLINE, and ProQuest databases and 5 guideline repositories between 1983 and 2018. A key difference between scoping reviews and systematic reviews is that in terms of a review question, a scoping review will have a broader “scope” than traditional systematic reviews with correspondingly more expansive inclusion criteria. This article provides some clarification on when to conduct a scoping review as compared to a systematic review and clear guidance on the purposes for conducting a scoping review. Following the same process, as the conduct of a systematic review, the scoping review protocol pre-defines the objectives and methods of the scoping review and details the proposed plans. Liberati A, Altman DG, Tetzlaff J, et al. Chambers and colleagues [25] conducted a scoping review in order to identify current knowledge translation resources (and any evaluations of them) that use, adapt and present findings from systematic reviews to suit the needs of policy makers. Systematic review or scoping review? Bastian H, Glasziou P, Chalmers I. Seventy-five trials and eleven systematic reviews a day: how will we ever keep up? For example, it is logical to presume that if a review group were aiming to identify the types of available evidence in a field they would also be interested in identifying and analysing gaps in the knowledge base. Correspondence to Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations. Nursing research and practice. Scoping reviews are a useful tool in the ever increasing arsenal of evidence synthesis approaches. PRISMA extension for scoping As Miake-Lye states, at this stage ‘it is difficult to determine where one method ends and the other begins.’ [38] Both approaches may be valid when the indication is for determining the extent of evidence on a particular topic, particularly when highlighting gaps in the research. Scoping studies: advancing the methodology. The systematic review: an overview. A scoping review and thematic classification of patient complexity: offering a unifying framework. Scoping reviews provide comprehensive and authoritative coverage of a topic area. Scoping reviews are therefore particularly useful when a body of literature has not yet been comprehensively reviewed, or exhibits a complex or heterogeneous nature not … Scoping review design represents a methodology that allows assessment of emerging evidence, as well as a first step in research development. These authors acknowledged that at the time, there was no universally recognized definition of scoping reviews nor a commonly acknowledged purpose or indication for conducting them. The results will be outlined in a manuscript to be published in JAND. 2018,169(7):467-473. 2005;8(1):19–32. Soon after, Levac, Colquhoun and O’Brien further clarified and extended this original framework [7]. In these cases, scoping reviews are not appropriate and authors should refer to our guidance regarding whether they should be conducting a systematic review instead. There now exists clear guidance regarding the definition of scoping reviews, how to conduct scoping reviews and the steps involved in the scoping review process [6, 8]. statement and Pham MT, Rajić A, Greig JD, Sargeant JM, Papadopoulos A, McEwen SA. J Clin Epidemiol. The scoping review revealed that the methods to assess wear (radiostereometric analysis) varied significantly with many different approaches being employed amongst the investigators. Zachary Munn. Pearson A, Wiechula R, Court A, Lockwood C. The JBI model of evidence-based healthcare. A systematic search was conducted, followed by screening and study selection. Ganann R, Ciliska D, Thomas H. Expediting systematic reviews: methods and implications of rapid reviews. Hines D, Modi N, Lee SK, Isayama T, Sjörs G, Gagliardi L, Lehtonen L, Vento M, Kusuda S, Bassler D, Mori R. Scoping review shows wide variation in the definitions of bronchopulmonary dysplasia in preterm infants and calls for a consensus. We hope that this paper will provide a useful addition to this evolving methodology and encourage others to review, modify and build upon these indications as the approach matures. J Eval Clin Pract. Among other objectives, scoping reviews help determine whether a systematic review of the literature is warranted. (in press). Scoping Guidelines Scoping Guidelines are intended to provide direction to the designers on best practices for the scoping of many types of Capital Improvement Program projects, as well as certain Lease Conversions. A further popular method to define and scope concepts, particularly in nursing, is through the conduct of a concept analysis [39,40,41,42]. Int J Evid Based Healthc. Stern C, Munn Z, Porritt K, et al. As the methodology advances, guidance for scoping reviews (such as that included in the Joanna Briggs Institute Reviewer’s Manual) will require revision, refining and updating. Scoping reviews are a useful tool in the ever increasing arsenal of evidence synthesis approaches. Health Inf Libr J. Flow Diagram for the scoping review process adapted from the PRISMA statement by Moher and colleagues (2009). CT: Contributed conceptually to the paper and wrote sections of the paper. a process of mapping the existing literature or evidence base The Joanna Briggs Institute, The University of Adelaide, 55 King William Road, North Adelaide, 5005, South Australia, Zachary Munn, Micah D. J. Peters, Cindy Stern, Catalin Tufanaru, Alexa McArthur & Edoardo Aromataris, You can also search for this author in Balancing the evidence: incorporating the synthesis of qualitative data into systematic reviews. The purpose of this article is to clearly describe the differences in indications between scoping reviews and systematic reviews and to provide guidance for when a scoping review is (and is not) appropriate. Implement Sci. Guidelines may be further enhanced by better inclusion of local risk-factors, case finding and co-morbidity management, preferably tailored to available financial and staff resources. (2014) suggest that a scoping review or study is a "form of knowledge synthesis that addresses an exploratory research question aimed Acta Orthop. The checklist contains 20 essential reporting items and 2 optional items to include when completing a scoping review. The authors revealed significant variation in how the condition was defined across the literature, prompting the authors to call for a ‘comprehensive and evidence-based definition’. Peters, MD, Horsley, T, Weeks, L, Hempel, S et al. PRISMA extension for scoping reviews (PRISMA-ScR): checklist and explanation. Our scoping review will use the Donabedian conceptual framework 15 for assessing the quality of care using structure, process and outcome components of quality, to map PC-QIs and categorise them according to relevant thematic domains. In some cases, there may be no need or impetus to make implications for practice and if there is a need to do so, these implications may be significantly limited in terms of providing concrete guidance from a clinical or policy making point of view. 2014;67(12):1291–4. Chambers D, Wilson PM, Thompson CA, Hanbury A, Farley K, Light K. Maximizing the impact of systematic reviews in health care decision making: a systematic scoping review of knowledge-translation resources. While antibiotics have shown the best results, other treatments like hyperbaric oxygen therapy and negative wound pressure … They also enable the relevant outcomes and target group or population for example for a particular intervention to be identified. 1 The purpose of a scoping review is to provide an overview of the available research evidence without producing a summary answer to a discrete research question. BMC Med Res Methodol. 2010;5:56. Levac D, Colquhoun H, O'Brien KK. Worldviews Evid-Based Nurs. Pearson A, Jordan Z, Munn Z. Translational science and evidence-based healthcare: a clarification and reconceptualization of how knowledge is generated and used in healthcare. CS: Contributed conceptually to the paper and wrote sections of the paper. explained in more depth shortly. BMJ (Clinical research ed). Gough D, Thomas J, Oliver S. Clarifying differences between review designs and methods. In the most recent attempt to create some clarity as to what a scoping review is, Colquhoun et al. "Scoping Reviews are able to map the available evidence in your field. Cite this article. map) which assists the user in interpreting where evidence exists and where there are gaps [38]. By using this website, you agree to our 2015;22(2):160–9. According to the Cochrane handbook, a systematic review ‘uses explicit, systematic methods that are selected with a view to minimizing bias, thus providing more reliable findings from which conclusions can be drawn and decisions made.’ [14] Systematic reviews follow a structured and pre-defined process that requires rigorous methods to ensure that the results are both reliable and meaningful to end users. Washington, DC: National Academies Press; 2011. 2015;13:224. Scoping reviews serve to synthesize evidence and assess the scope of literature review. As editors and peer reviewers for various journals we have noticed that there is inconsistency and confusion regarding the indications for scoping reviews and a lack of clarity for authors regarding when a scoping review should be performed as opposed to a systematic review. Harfield and colleagues (2015) conducted a scoping review to identify the characteristics of indigenous primary healthcare service delivery models [30,31,32]. The global evidence mapping initiative: scoping research in broad topic areas. Int J Soc Res Methodol. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12874-018-0611-x, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12874-018-0611-x. We have previously recommended the use of the PCC mnemonic (Population, Concept and Context) to guide question development [36]. Conducting a systematic review may also identify gaps, deficiencies, and trends in the current evidence and can help underpin and inform future research in the area. Reviewers may conduct a scoping review as an alternative to a systematic review in order to avoid the critical appraisal stage of the review and expedite the process, thinking that a scoping review may be easier than a systematic review to conduct. And the findings of included articles were grouped into five health dimensions a day how. Armstrong R, Ciliska D, Soares CB in JAND mp: Contributed conceptually to the paper diagram the. 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