Fires in 1997-1998 burned 92% of the park's area. Indonesia is the world’s largest producer of the ubiquitous oil, which is found in nearly every household item from bread to chocolate to shampoo. Though it was first planted in Indonesia in 1848, it wasn't until the mid-1990s that oil palm cultivation really started to accelerate. Green to white= forest loss, green to black= forest cleared and converted to plantations in the same year, green to blue= forest permanently flooded by hydropower dams. Later forests in the southern part of Borneo, an area belonging to Indonesia and known as Kalimantan, became the primary source for tropical timber. An analysis by Indonesia’s space agency shows an area of forest twice the size of London was cleared in the past decade in the watershed area of the Barito River in South Kalimantan province. However, in the past 50 years, more than 50% of the original rainforest has been lost. In recent years however, the system has been breaking down due to land-use change. There are seven distinct ecoregions in Borneo. Borneo's rainforests have been ravaged by fires, logging and palm oil plantations in recent decades. It requires low technology and is usually done on a rotation (or shifting) basis. Often located on steep slopes. Sources: Forest … Conservation was particularly hard in tropical countries.- 2019’s worst trends for forests mostly continued through the pandemic including widespread forest fires, rising commodity prices, increasing repression and violence against environmental defenders, and new laws and policies in Brazil and Indonesia that undermine forest conservation.- We don’t yet have numbers on the degree to which the pandemic affected deforestation, because it generally takes several months to process that data. Health In Harmony’s mission and that of their Indonesian partner, Alam Sehat Lestari (ASRI), is a difficult one—stopping forest loss in western Borneo, a region with one of the world’s highest deforestation … Deforestation in Borneo was historically low due to infertile soils (relative to surrounding islands), unfavorable climate, and the presence of disease. Only half of its forest cover remains today, down from 75 per cent in the mid-1980s. It doesn’t have to, ‘We are losing’: Q&A with The Orangutan Project’s Leif Cocks on saving the great ape, Is a Sunda clouded leopard a leopard? Borneo is divided among three countries—Brunei, Indonesia, and Malaysia—and at approximately 130 million years old, the Borneo rainforests are some of the oldest in the world. That being said, there are reasons to suspect that 2020’s forest loss will again be substantial. How bad is deforestation? During that period, nearly 40% of the park's lowland forest was cleared. Unable to support themselves with subsistence agriculture, many of these people went to work for logging companies. Today most of these habitats have been converted to other types of land-uses. The combination of large-scale deforestation in the lowlands and the importation of millions of people through poorly-executed transmigration programs have made it challenging to a imagine a future where many of Borneo's most biologically diverse forests survive into the next century. About eight percent of the land area in Sarawak is designated as reserves, but these protected areas are generally understaffed and threatened by illegal logging and encroachment by … A hundred kilograms of oil seeds typically produce 20 kilograms of oil, while a single hectare of oil palm may yield 5,000 kilograms of crude oil, or nearly 6,000 liters of crude oil that can be used in biodiesel production. The rainforest of Borneo is rich in many valuable natural resources. As in many tropical places, deforestation threatens Borneo due to logging, land-clearing and conversion activities. Oil palm plantations are the main driver of deforestation in Borneo. June 21, 2017 by Jackson Helms. - Once covered in vast tropical forests, East Kalimantan, in the Indonesian half of Borneo Island, is today the most intensively mined province in Indonesia.- Surface mining for coal has left behind vast expanses of barren land across the province.- Under Indonesian law, mining companies are responsible for rehabilitating their mining concessions.- In this analysis, based on field work in mining sites in East Kalimantan, restoration ecologists David Woodbury (School of the Environment, The Forest School, Yale University ) and Arbainsyah (Environmental Leadership & Training Initiative, Tropenbos Indonesia) argue the rehabilitation of coal mines is far more difficult, and likely far less effective, than environmentalists, mining companies and policy makers might hope. Historically, deforestation in Borneo was minimal due to infertile soils, an unfavourable climate, and the presence of disease. The World Bank Group: Transmigration in Indonesia. Moreover, we work to develop sustainable livelihoods for the local communities who are often attracted to the fast money related to the illegal industries. What is the highest deforestation rate during the period 1973-2010 [2], What is the highest proportion of intact forest in Borneo (or primary forest) in 2010 [2]. ‘We are losing’: Q&A with The Orangutan Project’s Leif Cocks on saving the great ape (19 Aug 2020 06:01:19 +0000) Among provinces and states on Borneo, Sabah is arguably the furthest along in integrating conservation goals into high-level policy planning. Land use change has broken the once tightly linked cycle of the ecosystem. The analysis identifies 24 “deforestation fronts” worldwide where a total of 43 million hectares of forest was destroyed in the period from 2004 until 2017. Borneo's rainforests have been ravaged by fires, logging and palm oil plantations in recent decades. A single hectare of oil palm may yield 5,000 kilograms of crude oil, or nearly 6,000 liters of crude, making the crop remarkably profitable when grown in large plantations. Deforestation started to accelerate with industrialization and between 1980 - 2000, more round wood was harvested from Borneo than from Africa and Amazon combined [2]. It appears that logging has reduced the local density and biomass of mature trees below some critical threshold that limits masting. In prehistoric times it was connected to the Asian mainland due to geological and climate changes. Palm oil plantations, the most important tropical vegetable oil in the global oils and fats industry, is the main driver of deforestation in Borneo. It doesn’t have to (19 Oct 2020 04:33:12 +0000) JAKARTA — The Indonesian government has denied that deforestation for oil palm plantations and coal mines contributed to a recent deadly flood in southern Borneo. These giant trees, often exceeding 45 meters in height, are the most valuable source of timber in Borneo and have been heavily logged since the 1970s. In Borneo, only half of the forest cover … When fires are set for land-clearing purposes, they can quickly spread out-of-control into adjacent areas, including healthy forests. and Malingreau J.P.: Forest Cover of Insular Southeast Asia Mapped from Recent Satellite Images of Coarse Spatial Resolution; Ambio Vol. Politically, the island is divided between Indonesia, Malaysia and Brunei. Borneo's forests are some of the most biodiverse on the planet, home to more than 230 species of mammals (44 of which are endemic), 420 resident birds (37 endemic), 100 amphibians, 394 fish (19 endemic), and 15,000 plants (6,000 endemic). A recent study finds that massive deforestation across Borneo, in large part for oil palm plantations, has led to higher temperatures and less precipitation over the past 60 years. By Daniel T Cross on November 4, 2020. Much of the remaining forests will be logged and converted under the present forest-use designations. This indicates that respondents in the regions with lowest current forest cover and annual forest loss (W. Kalimantan and Sabah), and with a longer history of deforestation compared to other parts of Borneo , , tended to see small-scale clearing as beneficial, and were least opposed to large-scale deforestation. Subsistence agriculture mostly involves slash-and-burn practices from local communities. Today, over half of Borneo’s forests have disappeared, and the remainder are under threat. EYES ON THE FOREST BORNEO DEFORESTATION Asia Pulp & Paper and UPDATE APRIL Groups continued in 2018 to source wood ... rainforest to develop wood fiber plantations at least through 2017.1 Government reports record wood ... indicating deforestation during 2001–2012 and 2013–2017, and remaining natural forest cover. For the villagers of Kampung Buayan, it used to be easy to forget how close the city of Kota Kinabalu is. Area: The current area of Borneo is 743,330 km2. Conservation Biology, pp.249-254 Volume 18, No1, February 2004, Global Forest Watch, Global Forest Watch Indonesia, World Resources Institute: The State of the Forest, Indonesia, 2002, Government of Sabah: https://www.sabah.gov.mv, Government of Sarawak: https://www.sarawak.gov.mv, Holmes, D.A. These are estimated to cover around 1 million hectares in Borneo, a small fraction of their original extent due to conversion for agriculture. A sharp increase in the incidence of fires in an ecosystem that is accustomed to fire has exacerbated drought stress and forest die-off. http://news.mongabay.com/2012/0715-chart-forest-loss-seasia.html, http://wwf.panda.org/about_our_earth/deforestation/, http://news.mongabay.com/2005/0413-tina_butler.html, http://www.livescience.com/27692-deforestation.html, © 2020 Borneo Futures Sdn Bhd  | Designed by Amir Yussof, © 2020 Borneo Futures Sdn Bhd  | Designed by. 42% of intact forests fall under “production forests” and will be logged as the area of forest that falls under exploitation is greater than protected forests. Land Areas: 743,330 square kilometers (287,000 square miles, 74.33 million hectares, or 183.68 million acres) A fundamental problem is that "development" in Borneo is driven by extractive industries. Over time, large parts of this rainforest have been destroyed to make room for farming. The range is not volcanic — the whole of Borneo has only a single extinct volcano — but does feature the highest mountain in Southeast Asia: Mount Kinabalu in Sabah, which reaches 4,095 meters (13,435 feet). In 2010, 65,000 km2 (twice the size of Belgium) was planted with oil palm and 10,537 km2 under industrial tree plantations (mostly rubber trees or acacias for the pulp and paper industry). - The ecosystems of East Kalimantan province in Indonesian Borneo face increasing pressure due to mining, logging, industrial agriculture, infrastructure projects, and a plan to establish a new administrative capital city.- One of the species imperiled by this rapid transformation is the Irrawaddy dolphin.- Estuarine populations of the species already face severely negative impacts from increasing shipping traffic and coastal development in Balikpapan Bay.- A critically endangered population of freshwater Irrawaddy dolphins living in the middle reaches of the Mahakam River are also under increasing pressure due to climate change, oil palm cultivation, coal mining and transport. Countries: Borneo, the third largest island in the world, was once covered with dense rainforests. From Borneo to the Amazon, many of the world's key rainforests – and endemic species – are currently under threat. Oil palm cultivation has expanded in Indonesia from 600,000 hectares in 1985 to more than 8.6 million hectares by 2015, according to U.N. FAOSTAT. Timber production appears to have shifted to Sarawak (North-western Borneo), where about half the forest cover is scheduled for logging. As in many tropical areas around the world, Borneo’s rainforests are being cut and degraded for timber, palm oil, pulp, rubber and minerals. Remote Sensing Solutions GmbH & GeoBio Center of Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich, in preparation, June 2005, MacKinnon K., Hatta G., Halim H. and Mangalik A.: The Ecology of Kalimantan; Oxford University Press, 1997, Sabah Forestry Department: Forests Resource in Sabah; https://www.sabah.gov.my/htan/data_1/a_toppage_main/frames.htm accessed February 2, 2007, Sarawak Forest Department: Permanent Forests Estate https://www.forestry.sarawak.gov.my/forweb/sfm/pfe.htm accessed February 2, 2007, Stibig H.J. Palm oil is literally everywhere – in our foods, cosmetics, cleaning products and fuels. ... Madagascar and Borneo. Environmental Investigation Agency 2004, Profiting from Plunder: How Malaysia Smuggles Endangered Wood, Fuller D.O, Jessup T.C and Salim, A.: Loss of Forest Cover in Kalimantan, Indonesia, since the 1997-1998 El Niño. Trees in these forests are typically shorter than those of lowland forest, resulting in a less-developed forest canopy. Fire is also a factor. - A small project in Malaysian Borneo aims to create a forest corridor between two large protected areas.- The reforested land comprises an old, legal oil palm plantation, which the Rhino and Forest Fund (RFF) is working to replant with native tree species.- The corridor is expected to help threatened species move between the Tabin and Kulamba wildlife reserves, including Bornean elephants and banteng, a type of wild cattle.- RFF says it hopes the project will serve as a blueprint for large-scale oil palm restoration and encourage the “urgently needed restoration of many crucial areas for biodiversity conservation and climate protection.”. We have a long-term project studying reforestation in some of the most damaged rainforests of Borneo. Today, over half of Borneo’s forests have disappeared, and the remainder are under threat. Health In Harmony’s mission and that of their Indonesian partner, Alam Sehat Lestari (ASRI), is a difficult one—stopping forest loss in western Borneo, a region with one of the world’s highest deforestation rates. Borneo now suffers from one of the highest deforestation rates in the world as forests are unsustainably logged for timber or cleared to make way for farms and plantations. However, forest degradation and deforestation affects all areas around Mawas. These swamp forests appear in places where dead vegetation becomes waterlogged and, too wet to decompose, accumulates as peat. The food supply is at danger when the forest are cleared, … These burned some 9.7 million hectares and caused estimated economic damage of more than 9 billion dollars. … While much of this new land brought under cultivation is less than ideal for oil palm, the crop's low maintenance, combined with growing demand and lack of other viable economic options in the region, make it a low-risk investment for large estate owners. However the first signs of deforestation clearly appeared about 1,500 years ago. Up to 420 million acres of forest could be lost between 2010 and 2030 in these "deforestation fronts" if current trends continue. Subject to mass deforestation, the remaining Borneo rainforest is one of the only remaining natural habitat for the endangered Bornean Orangutan. Indonesia's Kutai National Park was established in 1936 as a 306,000 hectare preserve, but suffered from reductions in extent, large-scale illegal logging, and encroachment. - To its proponents, the 2,000-kilometer (1,200-mile) Pan Borneo Highway holds the promise of economic development for the Malaysian states of Sabah and Sarawak on the island of Borneo.- But activists in Sabah say that poor planning and an emphasis on extracting resources mean that the highway could harm communities and ecosystems in Sabah’s forests and along its coastlines.- A new film captures the perspectives of people living closest to the highway’s proposed path and reveals the struggles that some have faced as the road closed in on their homes.- Meanwhile, an environmental historian argues that Pan Borneo Highway planners are repeating the same mistakes British colonists made in focusing on extraction, rather than trying to find ways to benefit Sabah’s communities. The threat Palm oil plantations, pulp plantations, illegal logging and forest fires are the key drivers of deforestation in Borneo. Curran says that intensive logging has taken a heavy toll on this reproductive cycle. Several distinct ecosystems are found across Borneo. Part 2 of 3 – Read Part 1 here and Part 3 here. Borneo is the third largest island in the world, covering an area of 743,330 square kilometers (287,000 square miles), or a little more than the twice the size of Germany. These transmigrants, mostly young landless poor from the crowded central islands of Java and Bali, were resettled at government expense on lands that were often inadequate for traditional farming. EYES ON THE FOREST BORNEO DEFORESTATION Asia Pulp & Paper and UPDATE APRIL Groups continued in 2018 to source wood ... rainforest to develop wood fiber plantations at least through 2017.1 Government reports record wood ... indicating deforestation during 2001–2012 and 2013–2017, and remaining natural forest cover. People arrived in Borneo around 40,000 years ago and for a long time their impact on the Bornean forests [2] was very limited. Related articles According to studies from 2014 based on satellite photos, an estimate of more than 30% of the original Bornean rainforests have been cleared within just four decades (1970-2010). In the 1980s and 1990s Borneo underwent a remarkable transition. However the first signs of deforestation clearly appeared about 1,500 years ago. Cloud forests are a type of montane forests. Up to 2.5 gigatons of CO2 was released into the atmosphere. How the pandemic impacted rainforests in 2020: a year in review (28 Dec 2020 19:25:42 +0000) Our research focuses on identifying the best tree species for replanting and optimal … In Kalimantan, oil palm has expanded even faster: from 13,140 hectares in 1984 to nearly one million hectares at the end of 2003. - An area of forest roughly the size of California was cleared across the tropics and subtropics between 2004 and 2017 largely for commercial agriculture, finds a new assessment published by the World Wildlife Fund (WWF).- The report looks at the state of forests and causes of deforestation in 24 “active deforestation fronts”, which account for over half of all tropical and subtropical deforestation that occurred over the 14-year period. Written 2000, published June 2002 Protected Animals Smuggling Reaches $547.5m Annually; Jakarta Post: 28/3/2003, Langner A. and Siegert F.: Assessment of Rainforest Ecosystems in Borneo using MODIS satellite imagery. Malaysia is … Secondary threats include large-scale industrial projects (roads and hydroelectric projects), hunting, and the climate of corruption which permeates virtually all levels of government in Kalimantan. During […] It is said that they are around 130 million years old, the oldest on the planet. The palm oil industry was responsible for at least 39% of forest loss on the biodiversity-rich island of Borneo between 2000 and 2018, data from a research firm based in Indonesia shows. In 2004, 30% of these of these were located in Sabah, which has ideal growing conditions for the plant, and 13% were in Sarawak. The prevalence of Dipterocarps gives Borneo's forests an unusual dynamic that is tightly linked with the ocean-atmosphere phenomenon called the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (also known as ENSO or "El Niño"). Some scientists fear that fires and climate change could be a positive feedback loop that only worsens conditions, producing ever drier climate, more frequent fires, and higher carbon emissions. “Forest destruction was already bad enough for the region to be declared a global deforestation front, then the 2019-20 bushfires burned about 12.6 million hectares in … Large plantations owners are aided by subsidies that include crude processing facilities and roads. In Kalimantan, some 80% of lowlands went to timber concessions, including most of its mangrove forests. Our recent analysis showed that between 1973 and 2010, a total area of 168 493 km2 (or 16.8 million ha) of rainforest in Borneo has been converted to other types of land uses2. Under dry el Niño conditions, which affect Southeast Asia periodically, thousands of fires can burn across Kalimantan, causing large-scale air pollution known regionally as "haze". Replanting trees prevents soil erosion, restores wildlife habitats and reduces fire risks; it engages local communities in conservation; and it contributes to the global fight to stop climate change. REUTERS/Supri SUPRI/CP Cora, an eight-month old orangutan who was purchased in Jakarta for 5 million rupiah ($580) and handed over to a government run animal shelter, is held by a … The mass blooming and subsequent fruiting — which has been known to synchronize over an area of 150 million hectares (370 million acres) and involve 1870 species — is a boon to seed predators, including wild boar, the keystone seed predator in the ecosystem. http://forestwatchers.net/pybossa/app/deforestedareas/, Get involved and support reforestation initiatives, Buy only FSC certified tropical timber: https://us.fsc.org/. Lowland Dipterocarp forests are the most biodiverse and most threatened forests in Borneo. Timelapse of Borneo deforestation 2000-2017. For the first time, clear, transparent and precise figure about deforestation rates and extent in Borneo are made available. - Every Tuesday, Mongabay brings you a new episode of Candid Animal Cam, our show featuring animals caught on camera traps around the world and hosted by Romi Castagnino, our writer and conservation scientist. Dolphins face growing pressure as development eats into Borneo’s interior (02 Dec 2020 08:59:18 +0000) Agro-industrial crops include rubber and other industrial tree plantations (about 10 % of the entire Borneo island). Kalimantan on the Indonesian island of Borneo is home to some of the oldest tropical rainforest in the world. In 1973, Borneo was covered with 75.7% of forest; in 2010 this percentage was down to 52.8%. Nearly two-thirds of that loss occurred in Latin America.- The report lays out a series of actions to address deforestation, include policy measures by governments and companies. In this case, Eventually, if all these plans are materialised, intact forest coverage of Borneo will only be 11%. [3]. Orangutans, native to the islands of Sumatra and Borneo, are being pushed closer to extinction by deforestation and human negligence. Save the Orangutan therefore supports patrolling of the protected rainforest areas. For example, protected areas in Sabah, a state in Malaysian Borneo, have generally fared better than reserves in Indonesia, where illegal logging, encroachment, and poaching can be frequent. Indonesian Borneo is known as Kalimantan, while Malaysian Borneo is known as East Malaysia. It is also an important refuge for the Asian Elephant, the Sumatran Rhinoceros, the and the Bornean Clouded Leopard. Sabah has the highest proportion of forest under some form of protection and the government is starting to work to encourage a knowledge-based services economy over an extractive one. At the same time that valuable timber became increasingly scarce, interest in oil palm plantations began to spread in Borneo. Headhunters ruled the remote parts of the island until a century ago. Initially most of the timber was taken from the Malaysian part of the island in the northern states of Sabah and Sarawak. Conservationists replant legal palm oil plantation with forest in Borneo (09 Nov 2020 12:45:50 +0000) Candid Animal Cam heads to Southeast Asia, Watershed and other "functional" forests. Logging in Borneo in the 1980s and 1990s was some of the most intensive the world has ever seen, with 60-240 cubic meters of wood being harvested per hectare versus 23 cubic meters per hectare in the Amazon. During a "Dipterocarp year" in Kalimantan, the canopy bursts into color as countless emergent Dipterocarp trees — each of which may have 4 million flowers — bloom during a six-week period, a strategy that intermittently starves and swamps seed predators so that at least some seeds survive to germination. World, Bank Discussion Paper. Indonesia is the world’s largest producer of the ubiquitous oil, which is found in nearly every household item from bread to chocolate to shampoo. Curran found that seed production fell from 175 pounds per acre in 1991 to 16.5 pounds per acre in 1998, even though it was a one of the strongest El Niño years on record. Without access to electricity, life in a small indigenous community tucked away deep in Borneo’s rainforest could feel far removed from the bustling markets and gleaming hotels in the capital of … The most important risk factor for orangutans is the loss of habitat. If Borneo's lowland forests are to be saved, it will require broad recognition of the value of forests as healthy and productive ecosystems. Geographically the island is divided by central highlands that run diagonally from Sabah state (Malaysia) in northeastern Borneo to southwestern Borneo, roughly forming the border between West and Central Kalimantan (Indonesia). Curran L.M., personal communication, January 2007, Curran L.M., Trigg S.N., McDonald A.K., Astiani D., Hardiono Y.M., Siregar P., Caniago E. and Kasischke E.: Lowland Forest Loss in, Protected Areas of Indonesian Borneo; Science, 13 February 2004; VOL303: 1000-1003, Davis W., Mackenzie I., Kennedy S.: Nomads of the Dawn, Pomegranate Artbooks, 1995, Environmental Investigation Agency (EIA) and Telapak: Timber Traffickers: How Malaysia and Singapore are reaping a profit from the illegal destruction of Indonesia's tropical forests; May 2003. 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