Bangalore based United Telecoms Limited won the bid, being almost 80% lower to the second lowest bidder ITI followed by Tejas, STL, etc. (Of course the fiber in this case will probably travel a longer route, and there will be additional delays due to communication equipment switching and the process of encoding and decoding the voice onto the fiber). The index of refraction of a vacuum is therefore 1, by definition. Rare-earth doped optical fibers can be used to provide signal amplification by splicing a short section of doped fiber into a regular (undoped) optical fiber line. Optical fiber is also used in imaging optics. UTL emerged as the competitive bid winner and obtained the GPON supply contract for a value of approximately Rs 1000 Cr. Illustration of the modified chemical vapour deposition (inside) process. Fiber with a larger NA requires less precision to splice and work with than fiber with a smaller NA. Regular communications fiber optics uses smaller glass fiber … Indeed, one emerging school of thought is that a glass is simply the limiting case of a polycrystalline solid. The sine of this maximum angle is the numerical aperture (NA) of the fiber. It will run in between Kochi and 11 Islands of Lakshadweep namely- Kavaratti, Agati, Amini, Kalpeni, Minicoy, Androth, Bangaram, Bitra, Kiltan, Chetlat and Kadmat. , National Optic Fibre Network uses gigabit passive optical network (GPON) products supplied by United Telecoms Limited (UTL) which are manufactured in India and the technology is indigenously developed by Centre for Development of Telematics (C-DOT). , In February 2016 it was reported that the target which was to connect 150,000 panchayats by 2015 was incomplete as cables could only be laid in about 32,000-gram panchayats across the country.. I would also like to express my gratitude to the other staffs of the Department of Physics for their support during the making of this project. A spectrometer analyzes substances by bouncing light off of and through them. An optical fiber (or fibre in British English) is a flexible, transparent fiber made by drawing glass or plastic to a diameter slightly thicker than that of a human hair. An optical fiber (or fibre) is a glass or plastic fiber that carries light along its length. Another important feature of cable is cable withstanding against the horizontally applied force. Universal Service Obligation Fund (DOT), BBNL, BSNL, Rail Tel, Power Grid and Telecom Players, USPs and content providers, along with State Governments, are working on the Pilot Trials. Gases such as silicon tetrachloride (SiCl4) or germanium tetrachloride (GeCl4) are injected with oxygen in the end of the tube. Fiber optic coatings are applied using one of two methods: wet-on-dry, in which the fiber passes through a primary coating application, which is then UV cured, then through the secondary coating application which is subsequently cured; and wet-on-wet, in which the fiber passes through both the primary and secondary coating applications and then goes to UV curing. Disclaimer: iCBSE.com is not associated with Central Board of Secondary Education, New Delhi. The National Optical Fibre Network (NOFN) is a project initiated in 2011 and funded by Universal Service Obligation Fund to provide broadband connectivity to over 200,000 gram panchayats of India at an initial cost of ₹200 billion (US$2.8 billion).  It connected 100,000 gram panchayat, covering 300,000 villages by laying 300,000 km of optical fibre network. Optical fibers may be connected to each other by connectors or by splicing, that is, joining two fibers together to form a continuous optical waveguide. ), and an impetus to the Make in India, Digital India and Startup India initiatives. Dadra & Nagar Haveli, Daman & Diu, and Puducherry. , DoT will invest ₹107.43 billion (US$1.5 billion) on BharatNet in Northeast India by December 2018, including erecting 6,673 towers to connect 8,621 villages at the cost of ₹533.6 billion (US$7.5 billion) and additional 4,240 gram panchayats by satellite broadband connectivity by December 2018. Step 1: Long-Term Strategy Although difficult to truly predict, it’s safe to say increasing bandwidth needs will continue. C-DOT has also inked technology transfer pacts with six Indian vendors which include Indian Telephone Industries Limited (ITI Ltd), Tejas Networks, VMC, Sai Systems, UTL and SM Creative to manufacture the gear on winning the contracts. Light is kept in the core of the optical fiber by total internal reflection. The Project provides a provision of a direct communication link through a dedicated submarine Optical Fibre Cable (OFC). A splice loss estimate is measured by the splicer, by directing light through the cladding on one side and measuring the light leaking from the cladding on the other side. Doping is also possible with laser-active ions (for example, rare earth-doped fibers) in order to obtain active fibers to be used, for example, in fiber amplifiers or laser applications. Is it possible to write pending one 12th board exam in India for a UAE school student, Chemistry Project on Optical Fiber and its Applications, Industrial Optical Fiber Cable(Multi-Mode). Joining lengths of optical fiber is more complex than joining electrical wire or cable. A coherent bundle of fibers is used, sometimes along with lenses, for a long, thin imaging device called an endoscope, which is used to view objects through a small hole. Fiber optics is the overlap of applied science and engineering concerned with the design and application of optical fibers. Mechanical fiber splices are designed to be quicker and easier to install, but there is still the need for stripping, careful cleaning and precision cleaving. Even simple cleaving (breaking) of the ends of the fiber can provide nicely flat surfaces with acceptable optical quality. Aluminosilicates are much more effective in this respect. The behaviour of larger-core multi-mode fiber can also be modeled using the wave equation, which shows that such fiber supports more than one mode of propagation (hence the name).  It is built under the Make in India initiative with no involvement of foreign companies. Optical fiber is an intrinsic part of the light-transmitting concrete building product, LiTraCon. The Office of Adviser announced they would work on applications for rural broadband in collaboration with Ministries of Rural Development, Panchayati Raj, HRD, Health and the Prime Minister's National Council on Skill Development so that even as hardware connectivity is under progress, applications also get addressed. A high numerical aperture allows light to propagate down the fiber in rays both close to the axis and at various angles, allowing efficient coupling of light into the fiber. To change examination centre from dehradun to Siliguri, West Bengal! However, this high numerical aperture increases the amount of dispersion as rays at different angles have different path lengths and therefore take different times to traverse the fiber. , BharatNet Phase-II, to be completed by 31 March 2019 (unofficial target date 31 Dec 2018), will connect the remaining nearly 145,000 gram panchayats covering 325,000 villages through additional 1 million km of optical fibre. https://www.pinterest.com/thebrookewalton/fiber-optic-projects , A passive optical network (PON) brings fibre cabling and signals to the home using a point-to-multipoint scheme that enables a single optical fibre to serve multiple premises. Light reflected from optical fiber illuminates exhibited model.  Additionally, Indian Railway will provide Wi-Fi hotspots, limited free access and unlimited paid access, at 600 major stations by March 2018 and all of its 8,500 stations by March 2019 with an outlay of ₹7 billion (US$98 million), with 1,200 large stations catering to the rail passengers and the remaining 7,300 stations catering to both rail passengers and local population in remote and rural areas, including facilities to access government services or e-purchase of commercial products (c. 7 Jan 2018). The actual speed of light in a vacuum is about 300 million meters (186 thousand miles) per second. "Bharat Broadband plans to hook up all 2.5 lakh panchayats by Dec-end", BSNL lays 11,005-km optical fibre cable in state, Indian Railways to equip all 8,500 stations with Wi-Fi, HRD ministry asks colleges to provide free Wi-Fi on campus, Forget Wi-Fi: This startup tech can power the Internet using light bulbs and is 100 times faster, DoT to spend Rs 10,743 cr to improve connectivity in NE, "National Optical Fibre Network Rollout: Centre's nod to some states going solo, bid to push rollout", http://indianexpress.com/article/technology/technology-others/pm-narendra-modi-to-review-national-optical-fibre-network-project-tomorrow/, "Broadband Connectivity to 250,000 Panchayats through National Optical Fibre Network (NOFN)", "Union Government Approved Project for National Optical Fibre Network Creation in gram panchayats", "Performance dashboard – Transforming India", "India's 'fantastic' broadband project that you should know about – Tech2", "Although Most Of The Wearable Technology Still Lie A Bit On The Expensive Side, Expectations Are Of A Large Increase In Number Of People Using Wearable Technology In India In The Coming Years - Electronics For You", http://www.bbnl.nic.in/content/page/technology.php, "United Telecom pips rivals ITI, Tejas, [https://www.stl.tech/ Sterlite], L&T with Rs 998 crore bid for BBNL contract", "List of Gram Panchayats where BBNL's fiber is available up to the Blocks from the GPs", Official live current overall summary status report, Official Phase-I status breakdown by state, Debasish Choudhury Vice President United Telecoms on BBNL GPON bid winning. 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